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Именьковская археологическая культура

Перейти к комментариям Жих М.И.

Именьковская культура (IV-VII вв.) располагалась на территории Среднего Поволжья (Самарская область, Татарстан, Ульяновская область) от Средней Суры на западе, до низовьев реки Белой на востоке, от правого берега реки Камы на севере до Самарской Луки на юге. Название именьковская культура получила по городищу у с. Именьково Лаишевского района республики Татарстан.

Рис. 1. Ареал именьковской культуры. Из книги: Седов В.В. Славяне. Историко-археологическое исследование. М., 2002. С. 248

По мнению подавляющего большинства исследователей, именьковская культура генетически связана с культурами полей погребений Повисленья, Поднестровья и Поднепровья (пшеворской, зарубинецкой, киевской, черняховской), в составе которых проживали предки исторических славян.

После прихода в Среднее Поволжье болгар во второй половине – конце VII в. именьковская культура прекращает своё существование. По мнению ряда учёных (П.Н. Старостин, Г.И. Матвеева, В.В. Седов) часть «именьковцев» вошла в состав населения Волжской Болгарии. Другая часть, возможно, ушла в район Днепровского Левобережья, где стала основой формирования волынцевской культуры (В.В. Седов, О.М. Пиходнюк).

К настоящему времени учёными выявлено более 600 памятников (городища, селища, могильники) именьковской культуры.  Для неё характерны как открытые, так и, реже, укреплённые поселения, состоявшие из жилищ двух типов: полуземлянок квадратной формы с наземными конструкциями в виде срубов и слабо углублённых в грунт каркасно-столбовых строений.

Могильники именьковской культуры – бескурганные с господствующим трупосожжением (трупоположения объясняются проникновением в именьковский ареал инокультурного населения) на стороне и последующим помещением останков на дно овальных или четырёхугольных ям с чашевидным, плоским или ступенчатым дном. Захоронения, как правило, либо вовсе не содержат инвентаря, либо содержат лишь отдельные вещи. Безынвентарность или малоинвентарность – характерная черта славянского погребального обряда, отмеченная ещё Л. Нидерле. Эта черта отличала славян от их соседей – балтов, германцев, кельтов и т.д. В ряде случаев в могильные ямы помещались глиняные сосуды и фрагменты керамики.

«Именьковцы» занимались земледелием и культивировали просо, полбу, пшеницу, ячмень, овес, горох и, что весьма важно – рожь, которая, как мы знаем благодаря исследованиям К. Яжджевского, была специфически «славянской» культурой и распространялась по Восточной и Центральной Европе вместе с расселением славян.  Весьма развито было и скотоводство: «именьковцы» разводили лошадей, крупный и мелкий рогатый скот, а также свиней. Керамику изготавливали в основном ручным способом, развита у них была обработка железа (часты находки железных наральников, серпов, кос-горбуш и т.д.) и бронзы.

Рис. 2. Керамика именьковской культуры. Из книги: Седов В.В. Славяне. Историко-археологическое исследование. М., 2002. С. 251

По всей видимости, «именьковцы», или какая-то значительная их часть принадлежали к славянскому этноязыковому кругу. Помимо ряда общих черт именьковской культуры с достоверно славянскими культурами это доказывается рядом известий арабских авторов, помещающих в Среднем Поволжье группу «ас-сакалиба»-славян. Так, например, в 737 г. арабский полководец Марван столкнулся с ними на землях, расположенных «за Хазарией» на берегах «реки славян» (скорее всего Волги), а Ибн Фадлан в 922 г. называет Волжскую Болгарию «билад ас-сакалиба» («страна славян»). Лингвисты (Р.Ш. Насибуллин, В.В. Напольских) выделяют в языках поволжских финно-угров ряд заимствований из древнего протославянского или балто-славянского диалекта, датирующихся серединой I тыс. н.э.

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Матвеева Г.И. О происхождении именьковской культуры // Древние и средневековые культуры Поволжья. Куйбышев, 1981

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Добавлено 23 ноября 2014

Комментарии


Ещё на тему археологии, http://arheologija.ru не сочтите за спам :)

Автор: Роман Добавлено:23 августа 2015 в 5:34

"Река славян" - это гораздо скорее Дон, а не Волга.Невероятно, чтобы Марван добрался до Средней Волги. А вот дойти до Нижнего Дона и взять в плен множество славян он вполне мог.

Автор: Владимир Добавлено:6 сентября 2015 в 10:04

Евразииские степи от Дальнего Востока до Дуная занимали тюркские племена.

Автор: Мурат. Добавлено:13 декабря 2015 в 10:50

В последнее время все по истории Славянизма политзирована и идеологозирована!Мягко говоря вызывает улыбку тщетные потуги псевдоисториков старающихся присвоить историю тюрков,турана. Даже тут противопостовляя именковскую культуру,Киевской Руси.А конкретно господа, это тюркская культура(сарматская и др.тюркских племен.Не позортесь.История России с 15 века итак прекрасна!

Автор: Мурат. Добавлено:13 декабря 2015 в 11:01

В последнее время, вызывает смех, откровенное желание тюрок, и тюркских псевдоисториков присвоит себе историю славян . Сарматы-это вообще ИРАНСКАЯ культура, к тюркам, ни одним боком отношения не имеющая.

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This is cratysl clear. Thanks for taking the time!

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