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Пеньковская археологическая культура

Перейти к комментариям Жих М.И.

Пеньковская культура (VI-VII вв.) существовала на территории современных Молдавии, Украины и Румынии от бассейна реки Прут до бассейна Северского Донца. Ныне известно более 300 памятников пеньковской культуры.

Рис.1. Распространение пеньковской культуры. Из книги: Седов В.В. Славяне. Историко-археологическое исследование. М., 2002. С. 207

Памятники пеньковской культуры впервые были обнаружены в середине 1950-х гг. в Потясминье работами Кременчугской новостроечной экспедиции под руководством Д.Т. Березовца у с. Пеньковки, по которому она и получила своё название.

«Пеньковцы» жили неукреплённых поселениях (селищах), которые располагались гнёздами по 3-5 селищ на расстоянии 5-7 километров. Обычно количество жилищ на пеньковских поселениях не превышало 20-30. Основным типом жилищ были полуземлянки, которые известны двух видов: каркасные и срубные. Отапливалось жилище очагом или печью-каменкой. Рядом с жилищами находились хозяйственные ямы, служившие для хранения различных продуктов. На пеньковских поселениях известны очаги и печи за пределами жилищ, вероятно, они использовались летом как кухни.

У «пеньковцев» существовали специализированные поселения ремесленников, примером чему служит металлургический комплекс возле села Гайворон на Южном Буге.

«Пеньковцы» хоронили умерших по обряду трупосожжения (хотя известны немногочисленные трупоположения) в грунтовых могильниках. Погребения известны как урновые, так и безурновые. Погребальный инвентарь крайне беден (трапециевидные и спиральные подвески, браслеты, стеклянные бусы, серьги, фибулы).

Основу хозяйства «пеньковцев» составляло пашенное земледелие и животноводство. Пеньковское население выращивало несколько видов пшеницы и ячменя, просо, овёс, рожь, коноплю и т.д.

Керамика пеньковской культуры изготавливалась вручную без гончарного круга. Известны пеньковские горшки, миски и сковородки. Для пеньковских горшков характерна ребристая форма.

Рис. 2. Пеньковская керамика. Из книги: Седов В.В. Славяне. Историко-археологическое исследование. М., 2002. С. 212

Из кости «пеньковцы» изготавливали гребни, иголки и шила. У них была развита металлургия, известны пеньковские ножницы для резки железа, следы ковки и термообработки.

Характерным признаком пеньковской культуры являются пальчатые фибулы.

Рис. 3. Пальчатые фибулы пеньковской культуры. Из книги: Седов В.В. Славяне. Историко-археологическое исследование. М., 2002. С. 217

Пеньковская культура уверенно отождествляется с антами Иордана и византийских источников, бывшими одной из славянских этнополитических групп. Своим происхождением она связана с киевской культурой при участии черняховского субстрата. В культуру Киевской Руси пеньковские памятники не перерастают: на Правобережье Днепра «пеньковцев» вытесняют и ассимилируют «пражцы», а на Левобережье на смену пеньковской культуре приходит волынцевская, не имеющая с ней генетической преемственности и связанная с приходом в регион новой группировки славян. В состав «волынцевцев» «пеньковцы» вошли только как субстрат.

Литература

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Вернер И. К происхождению и распространению антов и склавенов // Советская археология. 1972. № 4

Гавритухин И.О., Обломский А.М. Гапоновский клад и его культурно-исторический контекст. М., 1996

Галкина Е.С. К вопросу о роли Великой Булгарии в этнополитической истории Восточной Европы // Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2011. № 1 (9)

Горбаненко С.А., Журавльов О.П., Пашкевич Г.О. Сільське господарство жителів Пастирського городища. Київ, 2008

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Загорульский Э.М. Славяне: происхождение и расселение на территории Беларуси. Минск, 2012

Казанский М.М. Археологическая ситуация в Среднем Поднепровье в VII веке // Раннеславянский мир. Вып. 15. М., 2014

Корзухина Г.Ф. К истории Среднего Поднепровья в середине I тысячелетия н. э. // Советская археология. 1955. Т. XXII

Корзухина Г.Ф. Клады и случайные находки круга "древностей антов" в Среднем Поднепровье: Каталог памятников // Материалы по археологии, истории, этнографии Таврии. Симферополь, 1996. Вып. V

Ляпушкин И.И. Днепровское лесостепное Левобережье в эпоху железа. Археологические разыскания о времени заселения Левобережья славянами. М.; Л., 1961

Обломский А.М. Этнические процессы на водоразделе Днепра и Дона в I-V вв. н.э. М.; Сумы, 1991

Обломский А.М. Днепровское лесостепное Левобережье в позднеримское и гуннское время (середина III – первая половина V в. н.э.). М., 2002

Приходнюк О.М. Слов’яни на Поділлі (VI–VII ст. н.е.). Київ, 1975

Приходнюк О.М. Археологічні пам’ятки Середнього Подніпров’я VI–ІХ ст. Київ, 1980

Приходнюк О.М. Пеньковская культура: культурно-хронологический аспект исследования. Воронеж, 1998

Приходнюк О.М. Степове населення України та східні слов’яни (друга половина І тис. н.е.). Київ; Чернівці, 2001

Приходнюк О.М. Пастирське городище. Київ; Чернівці. 2005

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Русанова И.П. Один из методов классификации раннеславянской керамики // Краткие сообщения Института археологии. 1976. Вып. 148

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